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15. Common Misconceptions: "The science behind MMC is flawed"”

Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial

Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet 2007;369:657-666.

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Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial

Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005 Nov;2(11):e298. Erratum in: PLoS Med. 2006 May;3(5):e298.

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The relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection in African populations

Bongaarts J et al. 1989. The relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection in African populations. AIDS 3: 373–377.

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Geographical Patterns of Male Circumcision Practices in Africa: Association with HIV Seroprevalence

Moses S et al. 1990. Geographical patterns of male circumcision practices in Africa: Association with HIV seroprevalence. Int J Epidemiol 19: 693–697.

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Male circumcision and HIV infection: 10 years and counting

Halperin DT and Bailey RC. 1999. Male circumcision and HIV infection: Ten years and counting. Lancet 354: 1813–1815 Daniel T Halperin Abstract http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(99)03421-2/fulltext?_eventId=login#cor1

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Female to Male Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Risk Factors for Seroconversion in Men

Cameron DW et al. 1989. Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Risk factors for seroconversion in men. Lancet 2: 403–407.

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Viral Load and Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

Quinn TC et al. 2000. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Eng J Med 342: 921–929

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Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial

Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisuma, Kenya: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;369(9562):643-656. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60312-2]

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Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

HA Weiss, CA Hankins, and K Dickson. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 9(11):669-677 November 2009.

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Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men

Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: D003362. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003362.pub2.

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Review: A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries

Morris BJ et al . A critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for HIV prevention in developed countries. Morris BJ, Bailey RC, Klausner JD, Leibowitz A, Wamai RG, Waskett JH, Banerjee J, Halperin DT, Zoloth L, Weiss HA, Hankins CA. AIDS Care. 2012;24(12):1565-75. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2012.661836. Epub 2012 Mar 28. Review.

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Male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection in South Africa: Results of a national survey in 2002

Connolly C, Leickness S, Shanmugam R, Nqeketo A. Male circumcision and its relationship to HIV infection in South Africa: Results from a national survey in 2002. S Afr Med J 2008; 98: 789-794.

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South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012

South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012. Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)

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Risk Compensation Is Not Associated with Male Circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A Multi- Faceted Assessment of Men Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Trial

Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S. Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e2443

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Differences in risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence of circumcised and uncircumcised men in Uganda: evidence from a 2011 cross-sectional national survey

Kibira et al.: Differences in risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence of circumcised and uncircumcised men in Uganda: evidence from a 2011 cross-sectional national survey. Reproductive Health 2014 11:25.

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HIV goes up, condom use goes down

Circumcision is not a beneficial preventative intervention as it encourages men to participate in unprotected sexual activity

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Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial

Auvert B et al. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk. PLoS Med. 2005

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